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    瞧這網 » 專利頻道 » 發明資訊 » 正文

    新中國60項重大發明推薦

    廢物利用 - 科技小發明 - 小制作 - 手工制作

    新中國60項重大發明推薦
      項目(一)
      1950~1959
      1.李四光:陸相成油理論
      發明簡介:20世紀50-60年代,"陸相盆地生油理論"和"陸相盆地成油理論"指導了大慶油田的發現。人們一直認為只有在海相地層中才有可能出現的大的油田,我們的科學家經過研究提出了只要條件適宜,陸相沉積也可能生成大油田的理論。
      影響:李四光的“陸相成油理論”讓中國人徹底摘掉了貧油國的帽子,為咱中國人長了一回臉。大慶、大港、勝利等地連續建成大油田,陸相成油理論的作用功不可沒。此前,人們一直認為只有在海相地層中才有可能出現的大的油田,而中國一些大型中新生代盆地多為陸相沉積,因此西方人認定中國為貧油國。為此,我們的科學家經過研究提出了只要條件適宜,陸相沉積也可能生成大油田的理論。這個基礎理論的突破,讓我們發現了自己腳下的油氣資源。
      2.倪志福:“三尖七刃”鉆頭
      發明簡介:1953年,倪志福在北京永定機械廠當鉗工時,經過反復試驗,發明了高效、長壽、優質(加工精度高)的“三尖七刃”鉆頭,用倪志福革新后的鉆頭鉆削鋼件時,軸向力和扭榘分別比標準麻花鉆降低30~50%和10~30%,切削時產生的熱量顯著減少。此外,革新后的鉆頭三個尖頂,可改善鉆削時的定心性,提高鉆孔精度。“倪志福鉆頭”比當時國際標準鉆頭壽命長3.4倍,效率約高1倍。但倪志福謙虛地把“ 倪志福鉆頭”稱為“群鉆”。意思是群眾參與了改進和完善。
      影響:1953年當倪志福還是一名鉗工時,他針對普通麻花鉆鉆不動抗美援朝中破損裝甲車特種鋼板的難題,發明了高效、長壽、優質的“三尖七刃” 鉆頭。與修磨前的普通麻花鉆相比,“群鉆”有前角比較合理、鉆削力降低、耐用度提高、鉆孔質量改善等優點;而且,分屑、斷屑、排屑性能亦較好。點子創意網http://www.sdqj6.com/但是由于當時我國沒有專利制度,倪志福公布了技術成果而喪失了專利申請權,這一發明一直在全世界范圍內被無償使用。1965年,當時的科委主任聶榮臻為倪志福頒發了 “發明證書”,1986年聯合國世界知識產權組織也因此為倪志福頒發了金質獎章和證書。
      3.矮稈秈良種
      發明簡介:秈稻 ,一種一年生的禾草,水稻的一種,米粒細而長,在溫暖氣候下廣泛栽培,種子用作人類食物,谷殼和其他副產品可飼養家畜,稻桿用來造紙。早在1956年,廣東省的農民育種專家就培育出中國第一個大面積推廣的矮稈秈良種。
      影響:高稈品種的最大弱點是不耐肥,容易倒伏,稀植低產。隨著一系列矮稈品種的育成和推廣,1965年,我國南方稻區基本

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